Etude six by Fernando Sor corresponds to Estudio twelve in Segovia’s collection. Harmonically there isn’t anything in this piece that we haven’t already discussed. It is clearly a study in thirds in A major with mainly diatonic harmony other than the occasional use of secondary dominants and some interesting borrowed chords.

Etude five by Fernando Sor is the most ambitious harmonically so far. This study is reminiscent of the first prelude from the Well-Tempered Clavier by J.S. Bach. Sor makes extensive use of the full diminished secondary leading-tone seventh chord as a way of drawing out or delaying expected cadences.

Fernando Sor’s Etude four is quite simple harmonically. Its most interesting feature is the extensive use of what is called a “pedal point”. This is where a single tone is sustained, usually in the bass but could appear in any voice, through changes of harmony.

Etude three by Fernando Sor corresponds to Estudio eleven in Segovia’s collection of Sor studies. This is the first piece up until now to use two keys; E major and E minor.

To continue with the theme of harmony in practice we will now examine Etude 2 by Fernando Sor (1778-1839) from Douze Etudes op.6 (Meissonier Edition). This etude corresponds to Estudio three in the Segovia collection of Sor studies.

I thought I would start a section on analyses of well known classical guitar works. It is always good to begin simply and who better to begin with than Fernando Sor (1778-1839).

Target-tone improvisation is a method of soloing in which chord tones that make up the harmony that is sounding within the measure or part of the measure are targeted or emphasized, usually by their rhythmic placement on strong beats.

What do we need to know in order to improvise over a set of chord changes? What is the difference between jazz soloing and rock/pop soloing? What about blues? How do I handle that? These are the questions that are most often asked by music students when first starting to improvise.

Now that the seventh chords are understood we can talk about the ninth, eleventh and thirteenth chords as well as the altered dominants. As a jazz musician it is expected that you would use these chords to embellish or enhance the basic seventh chords shown in most jazz lead sheets.

There are five harmonic structures that occur within the tertian system of harmony that must be understood completely. These are the five basic seventh chords that are used most frequently in tonal music.


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